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    Our European history is going to start around 1500 with the Renaissance, but believe it or not, that is not the actual beginning of history in the continent. So, today, we’re going to teach you the broad outlines of the so-called Middle Ages, and look at events like the Black Plague, the Hundred Years War, and the Western Schism of the Catholic Church that set the stage for the history of modern Europe.

    Aberth, John. The Black Death. The Great Mortality of 1348-1350. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2017.
    Huizinga, Johan. The Autumn of the Middle Ages. Trans. Rodney J. Payton and Ulrich Mammitzsch. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1996.
    Hunt, Lynn et al. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. 6th ed. Vol. 1. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2019.
    Kelley, Donald R. and Bonnie G. Smith. The Medieval and Early Modern World. Primary Sources and Reference. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
    Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2009.